Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Pipe Tobacco



A tobacco pipe, often called simply a pipe, is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber (the bowl) for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem (shank) emerges, ending in a mouthpiece (the bit). Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector's items. Pipe smoking is the oldest known traditional form of tobacco smoking.

Smoking pipes of various types have been used since ancient times. Herodotus described Scythians inhaling the fumes of burning leaves in 500 B.C.
Some Native American cultures smoke tobacco in ceremonial pipes, and have done so since long before the arrival of Europeans. For instance the Lakota people use a ceremonial pipe called čhaŋnúŋpa. Other American Indian cultures smoke tobacco socially. The tobacco plant is native to South America but spread into North America long before Europeans arrived. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly.
As tobacco was not introduced to the Old World until the 16th century, the older pipes outside of the Americas were usually used to smoke hashish, a rare and expensive substance outside areas of the Middle East, Central Asia and India, where it was then produced

Wednesday, March 7, 2018

Butane



Butane (/ˈbjuːtn/) is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. Butane is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomersn-butane or isobutane (also called "methylpropane"), or to a mixture of these isomers. In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, "butane" refers only to the n-butane isomer (which is the isomer with the unbranched structure). Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases that quickly vaporize at room temperature. The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid, named after the Greek word for butter) and -ane. It was discovered by the chemist Edward Frankland in 1849.[6]



Isomers[edit]

Common namenormal butane
unbranched butane
n-butane
isobutane
i-butane
IUPAC namebutane2-methylpropane
Molecular
diagram
Butan Lewis.svgIsobutane 1.svg
Skeletal
diagram
Butane simple.svgI-Butane-2D-Skeletal.svg
Rotation about the central C−C bond produces two different conformations (trans and gauche) for n-butane.[7]

Reactions[edit]


Spectrum of the blue flame from a butane torch showing CH molecular radical band emission and C2 Swan bands
When oxygen is plentiful, butane burns to form carbon dioxide and water vapor; when oxygen is limited, carbon (soot) or carbon monoxide may also be formed.
When there is sufficient oxygen:
2 C4H10 + 13 O2 → 8 CO2 + 10 H2O
When oxygen is limited:
2 C4H10 + 9 O2 → 8 CO + 10 H2O
The maximum adiabatic flame temperature of butane with air is 2,243 K (1,970 °C; 3,578 °F).
n-Butane is the feedstock for DuPont's catalytic process for the preparation of maleic anhydride:
2 CH3CH2CH2CH3 + 7 O2 → 2 C2H2(CO)2O + 8 H2O
n-Butane, like all hydrocarbons, undergoes free radical chlorination providing both 1-chloro- and 2-chlorobutanes, as well as more highly chlorinated derivatives. The relative rates of the chlorination is partially explained by the differing bond dissociation energies, 425 and 411 kJ/mol for the two types of C-H bonds.

Uses[edit]

Normal butane can be used for gasoline blending, as a fuel gas, fragrance extraction solvent, either alone or in a mixture with propane, and as a feedstock for the manufacture of ethylene and butadiene, a key ingredient of synthetic rubberIsobutane is primarily used by refineries to enhance (increase) the octane number of motor gasoline.[8][9][10][11]
When blended with propane and other hydrocarbons, it may be referred to commercially as LPG, for liquefied petroleum gas. It is used as a petrol component, as a feedstock for the production of base petrochemicals in steam cracking, as fuel for cigarette lighters and as a propellant in aerosol sprays such as deodorants.[12]
Very pure forms of butane, especially isobutane, can be used as refrigerants and have largely replaced the ozone-layer-depleting halomethanes, for instance in household refrigerators and freezers. The system operating pressure for butane is lower than for the halomethanes, such as R-12, so R-12 systems such as in automotive air conditioning systems, when converted to pure butane will not function optimally and therefore a mix of isobutane and propane is used to give cooling system performance comparable to R-12.
Butane Refill is also used as lighter fuel for a common lighter or butane torch and is sold bottled as a fuel for cooking, barbecues and camping stoves. Butane canisters are almost exclusively manufactured in South Korea with the only exception being one manufacturer in Houston, Texas.[13] Butane canisters manufactured in South Korea contain butane from Saudi Arabia, while the American manufacturer fills canisters with domestic butane.[14]
In this form it is often mixed with small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans which will give the unburned gas an offensive smell easily detected by the human nose. In this way, butane leaks can easily be identified. While hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are toxic, they are present in levels so low that suffocation and fire hazard by the butane becomes a concern far before toxicity. Most commercially available butane also contains a certain amount of contaminant oil which can be removed through filtration but which will otherwise leave a deposit at the point of ignition and may eventually block the uniform flow of gas. Contaminants are not used in fragrance extraction and butane gasses can cause gas explosions in poorly ventilated areas if leaks go unnoticed and are ignited by spark or flame.
Photo D2.jpgThe Green Lighter 1 ies.jpgAerosol.pngButaneGasCylinder WhiteBack.jpg
Butane fuel canisters for use in camping stoves.Butane lighter, showing liquid butane reservoirButane being sprayed from an aerosol spray canButane gas cylinder used for cooking

Effects and health issues[edit]

Inhalation of butane can cause euphoriadrowsinessnarcosisasphyxiacardiac arrhythmia, fluctuations in blood pressure and temporary memory loss, when abused directly from a highly pressurized container, and can result in death from asphyxiation and ventricular fibrillation. It enters the blood supply and within seconds produce intoxication.[15] Butane is the most commonly misused volatile substance in the UK, and was the cause of 52% of solvent related deaths in 2000.[16] By spraying butane directly into the throat, the jet of fluid can cool rapidly to −20 °C (−4 °F) by expansion, causing prolonged laryngospasm.[17] "Sudden sniffer's death" syndrome, first described by Bass in 1970,[18] is the most common single cause of solvent related death, resulting in 55% of known fatal cases.[17]
A small amount of nitrogen dioxide, a toxic gas, results from burning butane gas, along with any combustion in the earth's atmosphere, and represents a human health hazard from home heaters and stoves.[19]